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not to be too concerned with changing the words so long as their meaning stays the same." The entire passage in which (and in which only) God speaks in the first person is one long paragraph. Jeremiah 35:6–7 shows that the rule of an order (here the Rechabites) might be formally quite similar to the Decalogue. The Decalogue came to be regarded as a summary of biblical law. One interpretation of "they were written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they written" (Ex. The remaining commandments were transmitted by Moses (Mak. Every single Israelite felt as if God was announcing the commandments directly to him (Tanḥ. In some Oriental communities (e.g., in Libya), it was customary to read the Ten Commandments on Shavuot together with the Arabic translation. Ḥiyya , after placing the first command apart as comprehending all the others, divided the other nine (a) according to commands of thought, speech, and action, and (b) according to relations between man and God, man and his family, man and man, reaching the classification shown in Table: Decalogue 2. Sifrei Numbers (112) calls it all "the first utterance" (concerning idolatry), though common opinion divides it into two (Ḥizzekuni: "The first two 'words' were said in a single utterance"). Like the founding father Jonadab ben Rechab, God defined the conduct required for the well-being of his "holy people" largely through prohibitions. Philo worked out the classes of law generated from each "word": the third "word," for example, covers all the rules of oaths; the fourth, all the sacred seasons and festivals; the fifth, all duties toward masters, elders, and rulers; the sixth, all sexual morality; the seventh, all bodily injury; the eighth, laws of debt, partnership, and robbery. ) gives rise to the view that the entire Decalogue was written on both sides of the tablets (Song R. In many *Reform congregations , the solemn recital of the Ten Commandments is part of the confirmation ceremony which is generally celebrated on Shavuot. Their aim is the perfection of the body and of the soul. –18) aim at controlling emotions and desires in deeds, in words, and in intentions (Philo, Decal. He speaks to them "face to face" out of the fire – but Moses was standing between the people and God "to declare 's word to you, because you were afraid of the fire and would not ascend the mountain" (5:4–5).
The interrelation of these two series of covenant stipulations is obscure; no less obscure is the relation of the Decalogue of Exodus 20 to the following law corpus (–23 (22–26); 21–23) – "all the words of and all the rules" that Moses relayed to the people and wrote down in the "book of the covenant" (24:3–4, 7). Criteria for dating even this shortened form of the Decalogue are wanting. the empty cherub throne over the ark), and the sanctity of the divine name are coeval with the beginnings of biblical religion. Literary influence of supposedly later Deuteronomic and priestly material has been found in the motive clauses; but even this is questionable in the light of the possibility that the influence may have run the other way.
A socioeconomic divergence appears in the last two paragraphs. Only later, when the "gift of the Torah" was appreciated as a boon (not only a solemn obligation (a glimmer of this is seen in Deut. ] the Decalogue stands out for its generality and suggestiveness, and its balance of essential religious and ethical injunctions. The Nash papyrus reflects liturgical recitation of the Decalogue which was practiced in Egypt down to late times (J. *Tefillin from Second Temple times found in the Qumran caves contain the Decalogue (see bibl.); and evidence that this practice was maintained among Babylonian Jews is found in Jerome (to Ezek. The problem of the two versions of the Decalogue did not constitute any difficulty for the rabbis. The prevailing opinion was that they were equally divided; the first five (relating to the duties of man to God) on one tablet and the next five (relating to the duties of man to man) on the second. As a result, the Decalogue does not form part of the statutory daily liturgy. Nielsen, The Ten Commandments in New Perspective (1968), incl. Alt, Essays on Old Testament History and Religion (1966), 79–132; G.
applies to the entire recorded transmission of the Decalogue: "Words are like bodies, their meaning, like the soul; hence the custom of the wise… 4:8)), did it become the fit subject of a major commemorative festival. Not much is known of the mode of transmission of the Decalogue and its setting in life before it was incorporated into the narratives of the Torah. Others held that each tablet contained the entire Decalogue. 104a), explains it to mean that the letters were incised right through the stone, which resulted in the comment that the mem and samekh which were in the tablets stood there by a miracle since they were completely closed letters and normally should have fallen out (Shab. As, however, the Jerusalem Talmud points out this applies only to the ketav Ashuri (the Assyrian script) whereas, if the Torah was written in the ancient Hebrew script, this would apply to the ayin (, Meg. The first two commandments, which were stated in the first person, were heard directly from God by the people. The Decalogue was originally included in the daily Temple service (Tam. Outside the Temple, the people also wanted to include it in the daily service, but they were forbidden to do so in order to refute the contention of heretical sects (minim) that only the Ten Commandments were divinely given (Ber. The aggadic statement that all the 613 commandments were written on the tablets in the space between the Ten Commandments was probably also intended to dispel this view (Song R. The only emphasis given to it is that the congregation rises when it is read as part of the regular weekly portions (twice a year in the portions Yitro and Va-Etḥannan) and on the festival of Shavuot. von Rad, The Problem of the Hexateuch and Other Essays (1966), 13–26; G.
and –19 touching on the chief offenses involved in the golden calf episode (other molten gods; an invented festival).
In and 28 references to the two distinct series of covenant stipulations are juxtaposed.
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